Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests. Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution. The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standards.
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Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution. The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standards.
The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpretation of this standard should be addressed to the American Gear Manufacturers Association.
Any person who refers to any AGMA technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter. It provides information on minimum requirements for accuracy groups as well as gear measuring practices.
Annex material provides guidance on filtering and information on comparison of gear inspection methods. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. Tolerance system development and comparison. Example of statistical process control SPC application. Involute and helix data filtering. Sector pitch deviation. Applicable definitions are provided.
The purpose is to provide a common basis for specifying accuracy, and for the procurement of unassembled gears. It is not a design manual for determining the specific quality levels for a given application. AGMA The former AGMA Additionally, the formulas stated the tolerances in metric terms. The content was revised, but basic tolerance levels were unchanged from AGMA The other material in AGMA It is a complete revision, including accuracy grades, in order to be more compatible with ISO.
It was approved as an American National Standard on August 1, Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. Consultant Profile Engineering, Inc. Gear Metrology, Inc. Consultant R. Hamilton Sundstrand Aero. Caterpillar, Inc. Fairfield Manufacturing Co. Columbia Gear Corporation W. Luetkemeier D. Mitsubishi Gear Tech. Nippon Gear Company, Ltd. Brad Foote Gear Works, Inc. It specifies definitions for gear tooth accuracy terms, the structure of the gear accuracy grade system, and allowable values.
This standard provides the gear manufacturer and the gear buyer with a mutually advantageous reference for uniform tolerances. Ten accuracy grades are defined in this standard, numbered A2 through A11, in order of decreasing precision. Gear design is beyond the scope of this standard. The use of the accuracy grades for the determination of gear performance requires extensive experience with specific applications. Therefore, the users of this standard are cautioned against the direct application of tolerance values to a projected performance of unassembled loose gears when they are assembled.
NOTE: Tolerance values for gears outside the limits stated in this standard should be established by determining the specific application requirements. This may require setting a tolerance smaller than calculated by the formulas in this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this American National Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below.
Users of this standard should assure themselves that they are using the symbols, terminology and definitions in the manner indicated herein. Distinction is not made as to the direction or algebraic sign of this reading. Such a distinction would require a purely arbitrary specification of a direction clockwise or counterclockwise traveled between the two teeth comprising the total cumulative pitch deviation.
Tolerances for total cumulative pitch deviation are provided by the formula in 7. It is the axis to which the gear details, and in particular the pitch, profile, and helix tolerances are defined. When not specified, it is an unmodified helix. See figure 1. When not specified, it is an unmodified involute.
See figure 2. Key : Design profile functional profile That portion of the tooth flank between the profile control diameter and the start of tip break, see figure 3.
NOTE: It is the responsibility of the gear designer to assure that the helix evaluation range is adequate for the application. The helix length of trace should be stated as the axial component of the helix. Deviations are deemed to be positive when helix angles are larger and negative when helix angles are smaller, than the designed helix angle.
Distinction is made as to the direction and algebraic sign of this reading. A condition wherein the actual tooth flank position was nearer to the datum tooth flank, in the specified measuring path direction clockwise or counterclockwise , than the theoretical position would be considered a minus -- deviation.
This filter cutoff should be stated in terms of roll path length. Minus material outside the helix evaluation range may be ignored. This standard specifies the direction of tolerancing for helix deviation to be in a transverse plane, on a line tangent to the base circle.
It is developed by subtracting the ordinates of a straight--line gradient from the ordinates of the design helix. Minus material beyond the tip break may be ignored. This standard specifies the direction of tolerancing for profile deviation to be in a transverse plane, on a line tangent to the base circle. The profile slope deviation is deemed to be positive and the corresponding pressure angle deviation is deemed to be negative when the mean profile line shows an increase in material toward the tooth tip, relative to the design profile.
NOTE: Roll path length is an alternative to roll angle for specification of selected diameter positions on an involute profile. It is developed by subtracting the ordinates of a straight--line gradient from the ordinates of the design profile.
See functional profile. Deviations are measured in terms of angular displacement and converted to linear displacement at the pitch radius. Distinction is made as to the algebraic sign of this reading. Thus, a condition wherein the actual tooth flank position was nearer to the adjacent tooth flank than the theoretical position would be considered a minus -- deviation.
This standard specifies tolerancing direction of measurement for single pitch deviation to be along the arc of the tolerance diameter, dT, circle within the transverse plane.
Tolerances for single pitch deviation are provided by the formula in 7. See 4. This clause presents considerations for control of the various phases of manufacturing, including the recommended methods of measurement control. These methods provide the manufacturer and purchaser with recommendations for verifying the accuracy of a manufactured product, as well as information relative to the interpretation of measurement data.
Some design and application considerations may warrant measuring or documentation not normally available in standard manufacturing processes. Specific requirements are to be stated in the contractual documents. In this standard, lower AGMA accuracy grades designate higher precision in order to be consistent with international standards. The manufacturing of gearing to a specified accuracy may or may not include specific measurements. When applications warrant, detailed specific measurements, data analysis, and additional considerations may be necessary to establish acceptance criteria for a gear.
For information on the use of statistical process control SPC , see annex C. NOTE: Specifying an AGMA accuracy grade or measurement criteria that requires closer tolerances than required by the application may increase the cost unnecessarily.
NOTE: Documentation may be deemed unnecessary for products manufactured under process control when inspection records are not specified in the purchase contract. Upon completion of all manufacturing operations, a specific gear has been given an inherent level of accuracy; this level of accuracy was established during the manufacturing process, and it is totally independent of any final inspection.
Process control includes elements such as manufacturing planning, maintenance of machine tools, cutting tool selection and maintenance, heat treatment control, and accuracy assurance programs, as needed, to achieve and maintain the necessary gear accuracy. When properly applied, gears manufactured by specific control techniques will be found to be of uniform accuracy. Therefore, little or no final inspection may be necessary for a gear, particularly in some classification levels; assur- With proper application of process control, relatively few measurements may be made on any one gear.
For example, tooth size may be evaluated by a measurement on only two or three sections of a given gear. It is assumed that these measurements are representative of all the teeth on the gear.
Gears made in quantity may be inspected at various steps in their manufacturing process on a sampling basis. It is possible that a specific gear can pass through the entire production process without ever having been measured. Based on appropriate confidence in the applied process control, the manufacturer of that gear must be able to certify that its accuracy is equal to those gears that were measured. The selection of the particul ar method depends on the magnitude of the tolerance, the size of the gear, the production quantities, equipment available, accuracy of gear blanks, and measurement costs.
A gear which is specified to an AGMA accuracy grade must meet all the individual tolerance requirements applicable to the particular accuracy grade and size as noted in tables 4 and 5.
Mezikinos Definitions and allowable values of deviations relevant to flanks of gear teeth. During electrical filtering, the test data signal passes from the probe head aggma an electrical filtering RC circuit and finally on to the data analysis and output devices. An example of how to establish an AGMA classification number for a given set of conditions is presented in figure 5. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition ISO Annex material provides guidance on filtering and information on comparison of gear inspection methods.
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