Similarly to the previous two editions i. The chapter concludes with an overview of theupcoming parts and chapters of the book. Next, the author focuses on thedifference between language and dialect providing illustrative examples fromnumerous varieties and drawing upon notions such as power, solidarity, low andhigh prestige, mutual intelligibility, and dialect continuum. Closely connectedwith the issue involved in distinguishing language and dialect is the idea ofstandardization; i.
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Similarly to the previous two editions i. The chapter concludes with an overview of theupcoming parts and chapters of the book. Next, the author focuses on thedifference between language and dialect providing illustrative examples fromnumerous varieties and drawing upon notions such as power, solidarity, low andhigh prestige, mutual intelligibility, and dialect continuum.
Closely connectedwith the issue involved in distinguishing language and dialect is the idea ofstandardization; i. Regional dialects, social dialects, styles, registers, andbeliefs are also topics of exploration. According to theauthor, pidgins and creoles share geographical similarities such asocean-neighboring locations , but of even more interest to linguists are thestructural similarities noted across different pidgins and creoles in the world. Drawing on examples from geographically diverse language situations,the author discusses numerous factors for code-switching, such as conversationalstrategies, power, political expression, solidarity, identity, and accommodation.
The author alsoquestions the boundaries of intersecting communities as well as considersnetworks and repertoires. While regional dialects dealwith variation according to geography, social dialects are associated with asocial class or group including societal factors such as education,social-class membership, gender, age, ethnicity, and so on. The latter, theauthor states, has been of more concern to contemporary linguists.
The author specifically critiquesparts of the research studies carried out by Fisher, Labov, Trudgill, Wolfram,Fasold, Macaulay, Kiesling, the Milroys, Bailey, and Bickerton among others ,to discuss some of the problems faced by researchers in studies on language useand acquisition.
While theauthor states that change in progress is not observable, he emphasizes theimportance of the consequences caused by the change that structurally affect thelanguage. The chapter discusses the difference between variation and change andchanges in progress illustrated with relevant examples from the literature. Wardhaugh suggests that one of the best explanations for change is that itinitiates among the higher social levels but is implemented by the lower sociallevels.
Culture in this context refers to the societal functions of a person,specifically the knowledge required to function in a particular society. Further, the chapter discusses the following topicsregarding the interesting use of terminology across cultures: kinship terms,taxonomies, colors, prototypes, taboos and euphemisms.
The author deliberates about how some of these languages vary in makingthis distinction using clear examples to illustrate his arguments. Additionally, the author maintains that politeness is socially prescribed andthat language is a tool that allows speakers to show their relationships toothers as well as their attitudes toward them. The author states that the purpose of many utterances is tomake propositions, however he distinguishes between several types of utterance.
Wardhaugh views utterances as acts and conversations as the exchanges of theseacts involving cooperative activity between speakers and listeners. In exploring gender differences with respect to language the author examines animpressive amount of research involving various languages dealing with genderand phonology, morphology, vocabulary, grammatical matters, and paralinguisticsystems, among other gender-related topics.
Some of the topics covered in the possible explanationsfor gender differences pertain to stereotyping, interruptions, back-channelingsignals, solidarity, identity, sexism, power relationships, sociolinguisticsub-cultures, behavior, and community of practice.
Wardhaugh proposes thatgender differences in language are due to several factors including socialclass, race, culture, discourse type, group membership, child-rearing practicesand role differentiations in society. The author begins with thewell-known claim that languages are functionally equal, however he adds that inthe social sense power differences create unequal perceptions of language.
Next, he addresses the phonology, morphology, syntactic characteristics, andhistorical roots of African American English AAE found in the literature. Language planning is defined as a planned change in a language due to anation and government persuasion.
In his analysis of a variety of linguisticsituations in the world, the author includes in his examples language planningsituations in France, Switzerland, Spain, Turkey, Russia, Finland, Kenya, India,Papau New Guinea, Singapore, Norway, Canada, China and the United States; thusencompassing various parts of the world to illustrate the diverse linguisticsituations regarding language planning. Further, the chapter addresses issuesconcerning language loss which is suggested to be occurring at an alarmingrate , and language spread specifically English.
He alsodiscusses the approaches namely quantification and ethnography for analyzingthe relationship between power and society. Overall, the author is hopeful forthe future of sociolinguistics with respect to the newly adopted scientificapproaches and new discoveries in the area. However, the textbook may also be employed in a beginning sociolinguisticscourse with significant instructor preparation, for example, the instructorwould have to guide the learners by providing background information about someof the well-known studies of which the book assumes previous knowledge.
The tasks provide a studentwith a hands-on approach to the sociolinguistic issues discussed in each chapterby providing additional samples and data. The text would benefit fromcomprehension questions for content guidance, especially for beginningundergraduate courses. The undergraduate population would gain fromtopic-specific questions that would elicit their comprehension of the multitudeof critical material included in the book.
In its entirety, the book offers numerous contributions concerning thesociolinguistic realities found in several geographical contexts. The flaws aresmall-scale details when considering such an outstanding text.
One of theseperceived minor flaws concerns how the Chomskyan perspective is presented. However, should learners be persuaded towards such views,or should they be trusted to individually interpret these ideas? A more neutral approach to the Chomskyanperspective would allow the learner to think about how these fields withinlinguistics can complement and even benefit each other. An additional minor flaw concerns the lack of thorough exploration of languageattitudes and ideologies.
While these are two of the numerous topics considered,there is no section specifically focused on these crucial topics insociolinguistics. Eliminating some repeated topics of discussion for example,some of the content in chapter 6 overlaps with the content in chapter 2 wouldallow more room for incorporation of further topics.
In chapter 7, while theauthor includes an in-depth presentation of research studies illustratingmethodological concerns in the area, he does not include more contemporarystudies, which would have made the review more comprehensive.
Moreover, inchapter 9 the author narrows the relationship between words and culture, sincehe includes only a selected number of topics within the subject that are notrepresentative of the idea as a whole. The text would benefit for example bymentioning writing systems, and the culture of oral languages among othermatters which would offer the learner an even more amplified view of words andculture. Further, the organization of the content covered in part IV seemsincongruous, especially the section on AAE.
The minor flaws brought up do not, however, compromise in any way the superiorquality of the text. Comprehensively, the book provides a rich source ofoverviews of the field of sociolinguistics that will undoubtedly affordresearchers and students in the area insightful knowledge evoking additionalfuture dialogue and research.
Sociolinguistics: Goals, Approaches and Problems. Her research interests include sociolinguistics, Spanish as a heritage language and SLA. Page Updated: Dec
An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 7th Edition
This comprehensive sixth edition retains these strengths, but has also been updated throughout to reflect developments in the field. New chapter-by-chapter "explorations" sections have been added which encourage students to actively engage with tkey issues in sociolinguistics. The sixth edition includes greater focus on ideas of identity, solidarity, and markedness, while the features that have made this work a classic - the balanced coverage of issues ranging from language dialects and variation, code-switching, bilingualism, and speech communities, to ethnographies, gender, and disadvantage - have been updated to reflect the latest research. Accessible and engaging, this is an ideal introduction for both undergraduates and graduate students with little or no background in sociolinguistics. Languages, Dialects, and Varieties Language or Dialect?
An Introduction to Sociolinguistics
However, the only online databases available for retrieving this information were for French releases of DVDs. It operates only in landscape mode and some tools are better on the Mac--especially the keyboard interface--but many options like the amplifier option, recording tools, and samplers are very well crafted and perfectly easy to use, even for those with no experience creating music. During testing, the application performed as intended and no problems were encountered. It can recognize common strings and phrases you type when launching certain apps to further improve your productivity.
9781405186681 - An Introduction to Sociolinguistics by Wardhaugh, Ronald