BIOMECHANICS IN SPORT ZATSIORSKY PDF

What biomechanical factors contribute to success in shot put? And how do these factors influence the way the movement will be conducted? The study of biomechanics is critical for understanding the way in which the human body moves when engaging with a multitude of different activities Watkins, Shot put, at first though, seems to be a relatively easy task, however, when broken down there are numerous small biomechanical factors that determine whether the performance will be successful or a failure.

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What biomechanical factors contribute to success in shot put? And how do these factors influence the way the movement will be conducted? The study of biomechanics is critical for understanding the way in which the human body moves when engaging with a multitude of different activities Watkins, Shot put, at first though, seems to be a relatively easy task, however, when broken down there are numerous small biomechanical factors that determine whether the performance will be successful or a failure.

The aim of this study is to analyse these factors in order to determine how they influence a shot put performance Does shot put follow a throw-like or push-like movement pattern? Shot put requires all of the joints in the kinetic chain to move simultaneously in one single movement Blazevic, To execute successful movement in shot put the individual needs to have a solid stable base of support.

The individual rotates their torso and their back knee is bent. There is an upward motion that relies on the power to be generated through extending the knee that is bent, the individual would apply force to the ground with the leg that is bent, Newtons Laws of Motion state that for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction Blazevic, As the individual extents the force moves into the arm as the shot put is released.

The front leg remains straight and the shot is pushed from the tips of the finger at an optimal angle. Within a push-like movement pattern there are two subcategories of movement, these being an open kinetic chain and a closed kinetic chain Blazevic, The difference between the two comes down the ability to have movement, with an open kinetic chain movement is enabled at one end of the chain and with a closed kinetic chain movement is not enabled at either end Blazevic, Shot put is placed into the open kinetic chain movement category because the individual is able to move their hand freely when pushing the shot, however, their shoulder movement is constricted due to it being attached to the body Blazevic, There is a considerable disadvantage that comes with using a push like movement and this is that the individual is not able to produce a shot at a greater speed due to the muscle movement within the body Blazevic, How do speed dynamics influence the distance the shot will carry?

Put simply, speed dynamics refers to the changes in the individuals speed whilst they are going through the movements Zatsiorsky et al, To completely understand speed dynamics in a shot put context there are certain factors that need to be examined, these being what changes in speed occur, what pattern they occur in and what influences the changes Zatsiorsky et al, There is a big debate surrounding how speed should be utilised during the build up to the shot.

On one side it is suggested that the individual should try and achieve maximum speed early on with initial movement, however, on the other side it is suggested that speed should be built up gradually Zatsiorsky et al, Reading suggests that the biggest factor that will influence speed is skill level, highly trained athletes gradually build their speed by identifying different stages, these being the initial gliding stage, the first half of final acceleration and final acceleration Zatsiorsky et al, The statement that a trained athlete has a better understanding of how to build speed is not surprising, these individuals are trained to react to these situation in a specific way.

What is the optimum angle of release and release height? How does this influence the distance that the shot will carry? The optimum angle of release for an individual is the ratio between the horizontal and vertical velocity Coh et al, In order to attain the maximum projectile range the individual needs to determine the best angle release. However, there are many factors that must be considered when determining the optimal angle of release Blazevic, Optimal angle of release is determined by two factors, these being when the landing point is lower than the height of release and when the height of release is lower than the landing point Blazevic, In the case of shot put, the landing point is lower than that of the release height, this means that the relative release height is positive.

The height of the individual is also a determining factor that should be considered when calculating the optimum angle of release Blazevic, Is a rotational shot put technique more beneficial than a gliding technique?

Until this point all biomechanical components of the shot put performance have centred on the individual using the gliding technique. However, there is another technique known as the rotational shot, this technique is considerable more difficult and research suggests that it should be left for the expert athletes Bartonietz, The way in which the individual moves is more varied when using a rotational technique, each individual will move slightly different as their body compositions are different Bartonietz, A rotational technique has a very distinct movement pattern, this being: Turning into the shot Shifting the body weight Taking off Bartonietz, The individual starts the movement with their knees bent, this allows for a smooth build up into the action Bartonietz, This type of movement would be better related to a throw-like movement matter, unlike the gliding technique which suits a push-like movement.

A throw-like movement pattern can be defined by having the joints of the kinetic chain moving sequentially Blazevic, It can be seen in figure 1.

In this pattern there are many complex movements occurring all in a specific order. What biomechanical principles occur in the three different skill learning stages?

Preparation Balance in an important factor when engaging with a shot put performance. The vast majority of the time beginners will utilise a gliding technique, this is less technical and easier to understand. The individual must ensure that they have the correct stance before starting movement, they must ensure their back leg is bent at the knee and that they are applying force to the ground to enable an equal but opposite reaction as they push the shot Blazevic, Skill cues Hips rotated - It is important that the individual rotates their hips.

This will enable them to build speed as they swing around Blazevic, Bend at the back knee - This is important as when this leg is extended it generates power Blazevic, Dirty palm, clean hand — The individuals should hold the shot in the tips of their fingers — not their palm. The shot put should lightly brush their neck.

Execution The execution stage of shot put comprises of many small critical elements. Many of these elements have been determined before the performance, however, the individual must implement them into the performance. The angle of release is a significant factor during this stage that has been determined prior to the shot.

The optimum angle of release is determined largely by the height of the individual Blazevic, During this stage the individual is utilising Newtown third law, for every action there is an equal opposite reaction Blazevic, The individual is applying force to the ground with their bent knee, the ground then will apply an opposite force which is sent up through the body and into the throwing arm as the shot is released Blazevic, The execution of the shot put performance follows a push-like movement patter, this means that all of the parts of the kinetic chain are moving simultaneously Blazevic, Skill cues Pointing arm - The individual can utilise their spare arm by positioning it at the angle the shot put will be released at.

This will also add to the balance of the individual. Build speed gradually — Speed should be built up gradually rather than having a burst of speed at the beginning Zatsiorsky et al, Simultaneous movement - The individual should move in a smooth manner with all parts of the kinetic chain moving together. This will enable maximum force Follow through Balance is a significant factor in the follow through of shot put.

The individual needs to be able to control their forward momentum after they have released the shot to ensure that they do not over step from the allowed area Rothery, n. The throwing arm will tuck across the individuals body, this will help them to stabilise. The individuals must also ensure that they do not leave the circle until their shot has landed Rothery, n. Skill cues Tuck arm — Tucking the throwing arm across the body will help stabilise the individual.

Wait to leave — The individual needs to wait until the shot has landed before they can leave the circle. How else can this information be used? The significant factors in shot put include angle and height of release, speed dynamics and push-like movement. These factors are relevant in a number of different activities, these include, discus, a net ball goal shot and a basketball goal shot, just to name a few.

All of these activities follow a push-like movement patter where all aspect of the kinetic chain are moving together Blazevic, A push-like movement pattern helps control the accuracy of shot, however, a limitation is speed Blazevic, The optimum angle of release is a big determinate in all of these activities when, this is ultimately determined by the height of the individual throwing the ball.

Speed dynamics has a significant influence over these other activities as well. It is important that the individuals build up speed gradually, building speed up gradually allows for greater control over the throw Zatsiorsky et al, The factors that have been examined here are very significant and influential to a successful shot put performance.

Each of them influence the performance at an individual level, however, when connected they are the factors that will determine the overall distance of the shot. It is important that all shot putters and coaches keep these factors in their minds when training for shot put, biomechanics has a significant role in this sport and if this is acknowledged individuals will ultimately experience greater success. Reference list Bartonietz, K.

Rotational shot put technique: Biomechanical findings and recommendations for training. Projectile motion. The Kinetic Chain. Arousal and individual differences in sport. Rules for shot put. Fundamental Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise. Biomechanical analysis of shot putting technique.

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Biomechanics in Sport: Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention

Sports Books Back cover copy Biomechanics is the science of the forces acting on the athlete during training and competition. It underpins the development of effective techniqe, which ultimately improves performance and reduces the risk of injury. Edited by a leading world authority, Volume IX in the acclaimed Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine, Biomechanics in Sport is a unique reference containing the contributions of some 37 prominent world experts in their particular research or applied field. Thirty chapters, divided into six parts, cover a broad spectrum of topics: Part 1: Muscle Action in Sport and Exercise is devoted to general problems of biomechanics of sport athletic movements. Part2: Locomotion describes the following sports: running, cycling, swimming, cross-country skiing, alpine skiing and skating.

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Biomechanics of shot put

Muscle force production and transmission. Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Readers who choose to skip over these sections will find that the book still provides a strong conceptual understanding of advanced topics. He was also a postdoctoral fellow in the department of kinesiology at the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canadaand at the department of health and performance sciences at Georgia Tech International Journal of Sport Communication. V marked it as to-read Aug 26, Books by Vladimir M. The biomechanics of sports including zastiorsky, skating, skiing, swimming, jumping in athletics, figure skating, ski jumping, diving, javelin and hammer throwing, shot putting, and striking movements are all explained. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology.

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