Thus, the foaming behaviour of liquids has to be tested particularly with regard to the application. This is done in two steps. First, foam has to be produced and second, the foam height has to be measured. The following methods are used to measure the height of the foam: Visual By means of a vessel with a measuring scale, the foam height is visually determined by the user in specific intervals. This demands great care because the foam surface is not even and consequently, subjective mistakes are not eliminated.
|Published (Last):||8 March 2018|
|PDF File Size:||20.47 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||14.32 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
TO types Supersedes edition dated February ? Chemical nature The Lutensol TO types are nonionic surfactants. They are made from a saturated iso-C 13 alcohol. They conform to the following structural formula. Lutensol TO 89 consists of ca. Lutensol TO consists of ca. The ethoxylation temperature is kept as low as possible. This, combined with the high purity of the feedstocks, ensures that high-performance products with low toxicity are obtained.
It does not necessarily form part of the product specification. A detailed product specification is available from your local BASF representative. This makes it very much easier to dilute them later on. The rates at which the Lutensol TO types dissolve can be increased by adding alcohols, glycols and other solubilizers.
The Lutensol TO types can form fairly stiff gels at certain concentrations when water is added. Storerooms must not be overheated. Drums must be resealed each time they are opened. The setting points of these products also need to be taken into account. This cloudiness can be dissipated by heating them to ca. This also applies if drums are heated by external electrical elements.
Internal electrical elements should not be used because of the localized anomalies in temperature that they cause. Constant, gentle stirring helps to prevent them being discoloured as a result of prolonged contact with electrical elements or external heating coils.
Materials The following materials can be used for tanks and drums. Their main area of application is in detergents and cleaners for household, industrial and institutional use. Because they are nonionic, the Lutensol TO types can be combined with anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants and auxiliaries. They are fully compatible with alkylaryl sulphonates Lutensit?
A-LB types , ether sulphates and other sulphated and sulphonated products. This enables synergistic effects and very high levels of performance to be obtained. They are also compatible with the Protectol? LF and Pluronic? PE and RPE ranges. Their compatibility with dyes, pigments, protective colloids, thickeners and other substances with a molar mass in the upper range is also very good. The versatility of the Lutensol TO types is such that they can be used to formulate acid, alkaline and neutral cleaners that satisfy the most varied requirements.
They are very effective emulsifiers in combination with Emulan? Laundry detergents The Lutensol TO types and other similar nonionic surfactants have been gaining in importance in recent years, for the following reasons.
Detergent manufacturers have been working steadily for years to reduce the amount of pentasodium triphosphate STP in their products, or to eliminate it completely, for ecological reasons.
The proportions of nonionic surfactants in detergent formulations, in terms of the total surfactant content, have had to be increased to compensate for the drop in performance caused by replacing STP with other builders. Fatty alcohol ethoxylates, especially those with a medium-length alkyl chain, have been shown to provide substantial increases in detergency in extensive trials. Laundry detergents with a high anionic surfactant content are only really effective on cotton fabrics at high temperatures and at high concentrations.
All-temperature detergents, especially, have to contain a large proportion of nonionic surfactants if they are to provide acceptable results on cotton, synthetic fibres and blended fabrics.
The detergency of medium-chain fatty alcohol ethoxylates is substantially better than that of anionic surfactants, especially in the low-to-medium temperature range and at reduced concentrations. Medium-chain fatty alcohol ethoxylates can be used to control foaming in household detergents. Their degree of ethoxylation can be in the lower or upper range, depending on the temperatures for which detergents are designed.
Detergents are often expected to produce different amounts of foam at different temperatures. This can normally be achieved simply by adjusting the proportions of linear alkylbenzenesulphonate, soap and nonionic surfactants, but special antifoams can be added if required. The popularity of Lutensol TO 7 has been increasing in line with the increasing demand for household liquid detergents. Lutensol TO has been shown to perform very well in low-foaming, low-phosphate and phosphate-free detergents and in institutional laundry detergents, either alone or in combination with Lutensol AO The Lutensol TO types have high detergency and high soil-dispersing capacity, and they are very effective emulsifiers and wetting agents.
It is for this reason that they are frequently employed in detergents and cleaners and in other industrial processes that require this type of performance. The Lutensol TO types with a low degree of ethoxylation perform very well as emulsifiers for mineral oils, which is particularly useful in cleaners that are applied cold.
The Lutensol TO types with a degree of ethoxylation in the middle of the range perform particularly well in all-purpose cleaners and in cleaners for industrial, household and institutional use that are applied at higher temperatures. Very large amounts of acids, alkalis, salts and organic solvents may have to be added to some formulations in order to fulfil special requirements. High concentrations of inorganic salts, bases and acids can impair the solubility of the Lutensol TO types.
Nevertheless, this does not necessarily affect their performance. Although electrolytes of this type do not cause the Lutensol TO types to decompose, they can still cause solutions to become cloudy or to separate but, provided they are still homogeneous, their performance is not affected.
It can be advisable to add a solubilizer such as cumene sulphonate to highly concentrated formulations. Cleaners of this type are based on caustic alkalis and carbonates, silicates and phosphates. They are mainly used to clean metal before it is plated, coated, phosphatized or anodized. N types. Household cleaners are mostly neutral, but they can be slightly alkaline or slightly acidic. E types as binders for solid cleaners. Alkaline cleaners Acid cleaners Household cleaners Solvent-based cleaners Emulsification Lutensol TO 3 and Lutensol TO 5 can be used alongside Emulan P to emulsify hydrocarbons such as kerosene and white mineral spirits.
The Lutensol TO types generally perform well as emulsifiers, although some perform better than others.
Their practical performance as emulsifiers can be gauged according to their hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, which correlates with their degree of ethoxylation. The Lutensol TO types can be combined with other emulsifiers from our anionic Emulan and nonionic Emulphor?
Graduated tests are the most effective means of determining the best combination of emulsifiers and the amounts required. Tests are indispensable if emulsions are subjected to severe demands due to the presence of electrolytes, finely divided suspended solids or water-soluble, organic solvents. Special emulsifier combinations often have to be employed to cope with exceptional thermal or mechanical stress. Dispersing The dispersing capacity of surfactants, which plays an important part in cleaning and emulsification processes, is the single most important attribute that has to be considered if sparingly soluble solids are to be dispersed in water, polar solvents or mixtures of water and solvents.
The Lutensol TO types are effective dispersing agents in grinding and milling processes, and they can be used to disperse the solids generated by precipitation, coagulation and other chemical reactions. They can be used alone or in combination with protective colloids. The Lutensol TO types are very effective wetting agents.
They can be employed in a variety of refining, mixing, impregnating and surface-treatment processes. Again, graduated tests under practical conditions are the most effective means of determining the best products for specific applications. Wetting 11 Other applications There are many applications for the Lutensol TO types in the leather, paper, paints and building products industries. Lutensol TO 3 can be employed as a feedstock in the production of ether sulphates.
Substitutes for alkylphenol ethoxylates APEO Legislation and voluntary agreements have been adopted in many countries to prohibit the use of alkylphenol ethoxylates in detergents and cleaners.
This was prompted by the ecological objections that have been raised owing to the toxicity of degradation products of APEO to fish.
The Lutensol TO types can be employed as substitutes for alkylphenol ethoxylates in most detergent and cleaner formulations.
Formulations Suggested formulations are contained in the following publications. According to the experience we have gained over many years and other information at our disposal, the Lutensol TO types do not exert any harmful effects on health, provided that they are used properly, due attention is given to the precautions necessary for handling chemicals, and the information and advice given in our safety data sheets are observed.
Handling All contact with the eyes and prolonged contact with the skin should be avoided. Safety glasses should be worn when handling these products in their undiluted form. Further details are given in our Safety Data Sheets. In view of the many factors that may affect processing and application, these data do not relieve processors of the responsibility of carrying out their own tests and experiments; neither do they imply any legally binding assurance of certain properties or of suitability for a specific purpose.
It is the responsibility of those to whom we supply our products to ensure that any proprietary rights and existing laws and legislation are observed.
Methods of foam testing
Boutique AFNOR Editions