Sources Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican-born black nationalist and leader of the Pan-Africanism movement, which sought to unify and connect people of African descent worldwide. His father was a stonemason and his mother was a household servant. Though the couple had 11 children, only Marcus and one other sibling survived into adulthood. Garvey attended school in Jamaica until he was 14, when he left St. He later said he first experienced racism in grade school in Jamaica, primarily from white teachers.
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Sources Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican-born black nationalist and leader of the Pan-Africanism movement, which sought to unify and connect people of African descent worldwide.
His father was a stonemason and his mother was a household servant. Though the couple had 11 children, only Marcus and one other sibling survived into adulthood. Garvey attended school in Jamaica until he was 14, when he left St. He later said he first experienced racism in grade school in Jamaica, primarily from white teachers. While working in the print shop, Garvey became involved in the labor union for print tradesmen in Kingston. This work would set the stage for his activism later in life.
Garvey spent time in Central America, where he had relatives, before moving to London in Universal Negro Improvement Association After two years in London—where he received an education that would likely have been unavailable to him in the Americas because of the color of his skin—Garvey returned to Jamaica. It was during this time that he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association.
Garvey also began corresponding with Booker T. Washington , the African American leader, author and activist who had been born into slavery. In , Garvey boarded a ship bound for the United States, where—as a dramatic and invigorating public speaker—he intended to go on a lecture tour.
He ended up settling in New York City, where he first spoke at the famous St. He also took on work in a print shop to make ends meet. And then when we are finished, if we have any charity to bestow, we may die for the white man. But as for me, I think I have stopped dying for him. If you must be free, you must become so through your own effort … Until you produce what the white man has produced you will not be his equal. Soon, his speaking engagements took on an angry tone, in which he questioned how the United States could call itself a democracy when across the country people of color were still oppressed.
By , he and his associates set up the shipping company Black Star Line under the auspices of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which by then had grown to include more than four million members. Not long after the Black Star Line had purchased its first ship, the S. Yarmouth, and rechristened it the S. Garvey was married twice: His first marriage to Amy Ashwood, who was a fellow activist in the Universal Negro Improvement Association, ended in divorce in Later that year, Garvey married Amy Jacques, who was also active in social causes.
The BOI began investigating Garvey on charges of mail fraud in connection with a brochure for the Black Star Line that included a photo of a ship before the company actually had a vessel in its fleet. In , after a controversial trial, Garvey was found guilty of these charges and sentenced to a maximum of five years in prison. He blamed a Jewish judge and Jewish jurors for his conviction, saying that they sought retribution against him after he had agreed to meet with the Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan K.
Garvey believed he and the K. He began serving his sentence at Atlanta Prison in In life I shall be the same; in death I shall be a terror to the foes of Negro liberty. If death has power, then count on me in death to be the real Marcus Garvey I would like to be. If I may come in an earthquake, or a cyclone, or plague, or pestilence, or as God would have me, then be assured that I shall never desert you and make your enemies triumph over you.
Death of Marcus Garvey In , Garvey returned to London where he lived and worked until his death at age Marcus Garvey died on June 10, from complications brought on by two strokes. By then, the organization had more than a thousand chapters worldwide.
In fact, W. Van Leeuwen, D. Friedman, J. Garvey, M. Citation Information.
Marcus Garvey, "The Negro Moses"
Proclaiming a black nationalist "Back to Africa" message, Garvey and the UNIA established branches in thirty-eight states by the early s. However, his philosophy and organization had a rich religious component that he blended with the political and economic aspects. His organization took as its motto "One God! One Aim! One Destiny! Due to the economic hardship of his family, he left school at age fourteen and learned the printing and newspaper business.
Garvey and Garveyism
Hill — University of California, Los Angeles Marcus Garvey is regarded as the leader of the largest organized mass movement in black history and the progenitor of the modern Black Is Beautiful revival that reached its apogee in the s and s in the United States. Although there is today of plethora of scholarly research for students to draw upon, the problem of interpreting Garvey and his movement is still as challenging as it ever was. And yet simply collecting more and more data might not provide answers to the questions that people have always asked. Was Garvey sincere? Did Garvey, in his espousal of the repatriation of blacks to Africa, forsake the rights of African Americans in America?