Er wurde am 2. Mai in Oberwiederstedt geboren und starb am Sein Lehrer war u. Friedrich von Schiller. Beeinflusst wurde er vor allem durch den deutschen Idealismus.
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In the church in Wiederstedt, he was christened Georg Philipp Friedrich. The family seat was a manorial estate. Different lines of the family include such important, influential magistrates and ministry officials as the Prussian chancellor Karl August von Hardenberg — He spent his childhood on the family estate and used it as the starting point for his travels into the Harz mountains.
His father, the estate owner and salt-mine manager Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr Baron von Hardenberg — , was a strictly pietistic man, member of the Moravian Herrnhuter Church. The Hardenbergs were a noble family but not rich. Young Georg Philipp was often short of cash, rode a small horse, and sometimes had to simply walk.
He attended the Lutheran grammar school in Eisleben , where he acquired skills in rhetoric and ancient literature, common parts of the education of his time. From his twelfth year, he was in the charge of his uncle Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Hardenberg at his stately home in Lucklum.
He passed his exams with distinction. In October , he started working as actuary for August Coelestin Just, who became not only his friend but, later, also his biographer. She was only 15 years old, and the two had not married. It was here that he collected materials for his encyclopaedia project, Das allgemeine Brouillon. Similar to other German authors of the Romantic age, his work in the mining industry, which was undergoing then the first steps to industrialization , was closely connected with his literary work.
In July , he became acquainted with Ludwig Tieck , and that autumn he met other authors of so-called " Jena Romanticism ". Julie[ edit ] Novalis became engaged for the second time in December From Pentecost , Novalis again worked in the management of salt mines. That December, he became an assessor of the salt mines and a director.
On the 6 December , the twenty-eight-year-old Hardenberg was appointed Supernumerar-Amtshauptmann for the district of Thuringia , a position comparable to a present-day magistrate. Death[ edit ] From August onward, Hardenberg was suffering from tuberculosis. His unfinished novels Heinrich von Ofterdingen and The Novices at Sais, his political speech Christendom or Europa, and numerous other notes and fragments were published posthumously by his friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel.
Writing[ edit ] Young Hardenberg adopted the pen name Novalis from his 12th-century ancestors who named themselves de Novali, after their settlement Grossenrode , or magna Novalis. He left an abundance of notes on these fields and his early work displays his ease and familiarity with them. His later works are closely connected to his studies and his profession. Novalis collected everything that he had learned, reflected upon it and drew connections in the sense of an encyclopaedic overview on art, religion and science.
These notes from the years and are called Das allgemeine Brouillon literally "general rough draft" , now available in English under the title Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia. It is the same with humanity, which forever strives towards and tries to recreate a new Golden Age — a paradisaic Age of harmony between man and nature that was assumed to have existed in earlier times. This Age was described by Plato , Plotinus and Franz Hemsterhuis , the last of whom was an extremely important figure for the German Romantics.
This idea of a romantic universal poesy can be seen clearly in the romantic triad. This theoretical structure always shows its recipient that the described moment is exactly the moment kairos in which the future is decided. Thus a triadic structure can be found in most of his works.
This means that there are three corresponding structural elements which are written differently concerning the content and the form. He forever endeavours to align these with his own view of transcendental philosophy , which acquired the mysterious name "magical idealism",  drawing heavily from the critical or transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant and J.
Fichte the earliest form of German idealism , and incorporates the artistic element central to Early German Romanticism. The subject must strive to conform the external, natural world to its own will and genius; hence the term "magical". Romantic poet Novalis — , portrait by Friedrich Eduard Eichens from The six hymns contain many elements which can be understood as autobiographical.
The topic is the romantic interpretation of life and death, the threshold of which is symbolised by the night. Life and death are — according to Novalis — developed into entwined concepts. So in the end, death is the romantic principle of life.
Influences from the literature of that time can be seen. The metaphors of the hymns are closely connected to the books Novalis had read at about the time of his writing of the hymns. The Hymns to the Night display a universal religion with an intermediary.
This concept is based on the idea that there is always a third party between a human and God. This intermediary can either be Jesus — as in Christian lore — or the dead beloved as in the hymns. These works consist of three times two hymns. These three components are each structured in this way: the first hymn shows, with the help of the Romantic triad, the development from an assumed happy life on earth through a painful era of alienation to salvation in the eternal night; the following hymn tells of the awakening from this vision and the longing for a return to it.
With each pair of hymns, a higher level of experience and knowledge is shown. Some of the poems notably lament the historical replacement of European Paganism by Christianity , creating ambiguity about the exact view of the Hymns on Christianity and polytheism. He disliked the victory of the economical over the poetic. It is a poetical, cultural-historical speech with a focus on a political utopia with regard to the Middle Ages.
In this text Novalis tries to develop a new Europe which is based on a new poetical Christendom which shall lead to unity and freedom. The work was also a response to the French Enlightenment and Revolution, both of which Novalis saw as catastrophic and irreligious. It anticipated, then, the growing German and Romantic theme of anti-Enlightenment visions of European spirituality and order.
Novalis was also an influence on George MacDonald , and so indirectly on C. Lewis , the Inklings , and the whole modern fantasy genre. Borges refers often to Novalis in his work. Novalis house plaque, Freiberg. The krautrock band Novalis , beside taking their name from him, adapted or used directly poems by Novalis as lyrics on their albums.
The film was in-competition with One Small Step , a studio production that was nominated for an Academy Award. Meisner and Bruno Wille , by E. Heilborn 3 vols. Minor 3 vols. Heinrich von Ofterdingen was published separately by J. Schmidt in Raich in See R. Haym Die romantische Schule Berlin, ; A. Bing , Friedrich von Hardenberg Hamburg, , E. Heilborn, Friedrich von Hardenberg Berlin, It is published by Kohlhammer Verlag , Stuttgart, — Classic and Romantic German Aesthetics, ed.
Jay Bernstein, Cambridge University Press, Fichte Studies, trans. Jane Kneller , Cambridge University Press , Henry von Ofterdingen, trans. Palmer Hilty , Waveland Press, Hymns to the Night, trans. This modern translation includes the German text with variants en face. Prokofieff , Temple Lodge Publishing, London, David W. Novalis: Philosophical Writings, transl. The Novices of Sais, trans.
This translation was originally published in This edition includes illustrations by Paul Klee. Wright eds.
Heinrich von Ofterdingen
Dadurch erzeugte er einen besonderen Rhythmus seines Romans. Diese Ruhe zeigt sich auch in der Wahl wenig anschaulicher und relativ abgegriffener Adjektive z. Die Figuren sind vielmehr Variationsreihen, die viele Verweise aufeinander haben beispielsweise Zulima—Mathilde—Zyane. Er sieht die Menschen als Variationen eines umfassenderen Wesens. Oftmals wird auch Klingsohr als Teilnehmer an diesem Wettstreit genannt.
Novalis - Heinrich von Ofterdingen
Lehrerurteil 1. Die Mutter nimmt ihn zusammen mit Kaufleuten nach Augsburg mit, um ihn abzulenken. Unter einem Baum hat er eine Vision von Mathilde, die davon singt, wie sich alles noch zum Guten wenden wird. Der Autor Novalis lebte von bis und war der bedeutendste Dichter der deutschen Romantik. Nach studierte Novalis Bergwerkskunde. Mit 28 Jahren erkrankte Novalis an Lungenschwindsucht, der er am