Representing 2. Protecting 3. Negotiating 4. Ascertaining dan reporting 5. Negara pengirim harus memastikan kepada negara penerima mengenai persetujuan atas kepala misi yang akan ditempatkan 2. Negara penerima tidak wajib untuk memberikan alasan kepada negara pengirim atas penolakan persetujuan tersebut PASAL 8 1.
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Representing 2. Protecting 3. Negotiating 4. Ascertaining dan reporting 5. Negara pengirim harus memastikan kepada negara penerima mengenai persetujuan atas kepala misi yang akan ditempatkan 2.
Negara penerima tidak wajib untuk memberikan alasan kepada negara pengirim atas penolakan persetujuan tersebut PASAL 8 1. Anggota misi secara prinsip harus warganegara negara pengirim 2. Anggota misi tidak boleh ditunjuk dari orang-orang memiliki kewarganegaraan negara penerima kecuali mendapat persetujuan dari negara penerima yang dapat ditarik sewaktu-waktu 3. Negara penerima dapat menggunakan hak yang sama terkait warganegara negara ketiga yang bukan warganegara dari negara pengirim PASAL 9 1.
A person may be declared non grata or not acceptable before arriving in the territory of the receiving state 2. The premises of the mission shall be inviolable. The agent of the receiving state may not enter them, except with the consent of the head of the mission.
The receiving state is under a special duty to take all appropriate steps to protect the premises of the mission against any intrusion or damage and to prevent any disturbance of the peace of the mission or impairment of its dignity. The premises of the mission, their furnishings and other property thereon and the means of transport of the mission shall be immune from search, requisition, attachment or execution.
Inviolability of the premises 2. Personal inviolability 3. Diplomat tidak boleh menjadi target untuk penangkapan atau penahanan 2. The sending state and the head of the mission shall be exempt from all national, regional or municipal dues and taxes in respect of the premises of the mission, whether owned or leased, other than such represent payment for specific services rendered. The exemption from taxation referred to this article shall not apply to such dues and taxes payable under the law of the receiving state by persons contracting with the sending state or the head of the mission.
Keiley, calon duta besar Amerika Serikat untuk Italia, di mana ia ditolak karena memprotes aneksasi Italia atas Papal State. Archer K. Branden H. The agents of the receiving State may not enter them, except with the consent of the head of the mission. He shall not be liable to any form of arrest or detention. Sergei P. I myself have a horror of all addictive drugs.
It destroys human beings … I feel I am acting to protect my people and also the people of Britain and indeed of the whole world.
It was, I am told, an almost unprecedented action. But in this fight we all must wage against this terrifying menace, I am convinced that I am right. Pada saat ia diterima disetujui sebagai Dubes di negara penerima 2. Pada saat formal reception oleh Kepala Negara dari negara penerima 3.
Saat diajukan ke pengadilan ia menolak karena ini merupakan pelanggaran terhadap hukum kebiasaan dan perjanjian internasional. Dalam hal kematian pejabat diplomatik, keluarga akan tetap menikmati hak kekebalan dan keistimewaan 4. Negara ketiga tidak boleh menghalangi hak lintas dari pejabat diplomatik dan keluarganya 3. They also have a duty not to interfere in the internal affairs of that State. Pemberitahuan dari negara pengirim kepada negara penerima bahwa tugas dan fungsi pejabat diploamtik telah berakhir 2.
Protokol Tambahan tentang Perolehan Kewarganegaraan 2. The establishment of consular relations between States takes place by mutual consent. The consent given to the establishment of diplomatic relations between two States implies, unless otherwise stated, consent to the establishment of consular relations. The severance of diplomatic relations shall not ipso facto involve the severance of consular relations. They are also exercised by diplomatic missions in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention.
The head of a consular post is admitted to the exercise of his functions by an authorization from the receiving State termed an exequatur, whatever the form of this authorization.
A State which refused to grant an exequatur is not obliged to give to the sending State reasons for such refusal. The receiving State may at any time notify the sending State that a consular officer is persona non grata or that any other member of the consular staff is not acceptable.
In that event, the sending State shall, as the case may be, either recall the person concerned or terminate his functions with the consular post.
If the sending State refuses or fails within a reasonable time to carry out its obligations under paragraph 1 of this article, the receiving State may, as the case may be, either withdraw the exequatur from the person concerned or cease to consider him as a member of the consular staff. A person appointed as a member of a consular post may be declared unacceptable before arriving in the territory of the receiving State or, if already in the receiving State, before entering on his duties with the consular post.
In any such case, the sending State shall withdraw his appointment. In the cases mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 3 of this article, the receiving State is not obliged to give to the sending State reasons for its decision. In the event of the severance of consular relations between two States: a. In the event of the temporary or permanent closure of a consular post, the provisions of subparagraph a of paragraph 1 of this article shall apply.
In addition, a. The authorities of the receiving State shall not enter that part of the consular premises which is used exclusively for the purpose of the work of the consular post except with the consent of the head of the consular post or of his designee or of the head of the diplomatic mission of the sending State.
The consent of the head of the consular post may, however, be assumed in case of fire or other disaster requiring prompt protective action. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this article, the receiving State is under a special duty to take all appropriate steps to protect the consular premises against any intrusion or damage and to prevent any disturbance of the peace of the consular post or impairment of its dignity.
The consular premises, their furnishings, the property of the consular post and its means of transport shall be immune from any form of requisition for purposes of national defence or public utility. If expropriation is necessary for such purposes, all possible steps shall be taken to avoid impeding the performance of consular functions, and prompt, adequate and effective compensation shall be paid to the sending State.
Consular officers shall not be liable to arrest or detention pending trial, except in the case of a grave crime and pursuant to a decision by the competent judicial authority.
Except in the case specified in paragraph 1 of this article, consular officers shall not be committed to prison or be liable to any other form of restriction on their personal freedom save in execution of a judicial decision of final effect.
If criminal proceedings are instituted against a consular officer, he must appear before the competent authorities. Nevertheless, the proceedings shall be conducted with the respect due to him by reason of his official position and, except in the case specified in paragraph 1 of this article, in a manner which will hamper the exercise of consular functions as little as possible.
When, in the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 of this article, it has become necessary to detain a consular officer, the proceedings against him shall be instituted with the minimum of delay. Should the latter be himself the object of any such measure, the receiving State shall notify the sending State through the diplomatic channel. Consular officers and consular employees shall not be amenable to the jurisdiction of the judicial or administrative authorities of the receiving State in respect of acts performed in the exercise of consular functions.
The provisions of paragraph 1 of this article shall not, however, apply in respect of a civil action either: a.
Members of a consular post may be called upon to attend as witnesses in the course of judicial or administrative proceedings. A consular employee or a member of the service staff shall not, except in the cases mentioned in paragraph 3 of this article, decline to give evidence. If a consular officer should decline to do so, no coercive measure or penalty may be applied to him.
The authority requiring the evidence of a consular officer shall avoid interference with the performance of his functions. It may, when possible, take such evidence at his residence or at the consular post or accept a statement from him in writing. Members of a consular post are under no obligation to give evidence concerning matters connected with the exercise of their functions or to produce official correspondence and documents relating thereto.
They are also entitled to decline to give evidence as expert witnesses with regard to the law of the sending State. The sending State may waive, with regard to a member of the consular post, any of the privileges and immunities provided for in articles 41, 43 and The waiver shall in all cases be express, except as provided in paragraph 3 of this article, and shall be communicated to the receiving State in writing.
The initiation of proceedings by a consular officer or a consular employee in a matter where he might enjoy immunity from jurisdiction under article 43 shall preclude him from invoking immunity from jurisdiction in respect of any counterclaim directly connected with the principal claim.
The waiver of immunity from jurisdiction for the purposes of civil or administrative proceedings shall not be deemed to imply the waiver of immunity from the measures of execution resulting from the judicial decision; in respect of such measures, a separate waiver shall be necessary. If a consular officer passes through or is in the territory of a third State, which has granted him a visa if a visa was necessary, while proceeding to take up or return to his post or when returning to the sending State, the third State shall accord to him all immunities provided for by the other articles of the present Convention as may be required to ensure his transit or return.
The same shall apply in the case of any member of his family forming part of his household enjoying such privileges and immunities who are accompanying the consular officer or travelling separately to join him or to return to the sending State. In circumstances similar to those specified in paragraph 1 of this article, third States shall not hinder the transit through their territory of other members of the consular post or of members of their families forming part of their households.
Third States shall accord to official correspondence and to other official communications in transit, including messages in code or cipher, the same freedom and protection as the receiving State is bound to accord under the present Convention. They shall accord to consular couriers who have been granted a visa, if a visa was necessary, and to consular bags in transit, the same inviolability and protection as the receiving State is bound to accord under the present Convention.
The obligations of third States under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this article shall also apply to the persons mentioned respectively in those paragraphs, and to official communications and to consular bags, whose presence in the territory of the third State is due to force majeure.
Without prejudice to their privileges and immunities, it is the duty of all persons enjoying such privileges and immunities to respect the laws and regulations of the receiving State. They also have a duty not to interfere in the internal affairs of the State. The consular premises shall not be used in any manner incompatible with the exercise of consular functions.
The provisions of paragraph 2 of this article shall not exclude the possibility of offices of other institutions or agencies being installed in part of the building in which the consular premises are situated, provided that the premises assigned to them are separate from those used by the consular post. In that event, the said offices shall not, for the purposes of the present Convention, be considered to form part of the consular premises.
Nevertheless, the proceedings shall be conducted with the respect due to him by reason of his official position and, except when he is under arrest or detention, in a manner which will hamper the exercise of consular functions as little as possible. When it has become necessary to detain an honorary consular officer, the proceedings against him shall be instituted with the minimum of delay. The provisions of the present Convention apply also, so far as the context permits, to the exercise of consular functions by a diplomatic mission.
The names of members of a diplomatic mission assigned to the consular section or otherwise charged with the exercise of the consular functions of the mission shall be notified to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the receiving State or to the authority designated by that Ministry.
In the exercise of consular functions a diplomatic mission may address: a. The privileges and immunities of the members of a diplomatic mission referred to in paragraph 2 of this article shall continue to be governed by the rules of international law concerning diplomatic relations.
Perwakilan Diplomatik Indonesia: Fungsi dan Tugasnya
Fungsi Perwakilan Konsuler, diantaranya yaitu : Melaksanakan usaha peningkatan hubungan dengan negara pengirim di bidang non politik. Melindungi kepentingan nasional dan warga negara pengirim. Menyelenggarakan pengamatan, penilaian dan persandian. Menyelenggarakan bimbingan dan pengawasan terhadap warga negara pengirim. Menyelenggarakan urusan pengamanan konsuler, komunikasi dan personalia.
Perwakilan Diplomatik dan Konsuler
Orang-orang tersebut adalah para diplomat dan konsuler yang di tempatkan di berbagai wilayah dinegara lain. Selanjutnya pembukaan dan pemeliharaan hubungan diplomatik dengan negara lain, atas dasar kesamaan hak, merupakan manifestasi nyata dari kedaulatan suatu negara. Sebagai entitas yang merdeka dan berdaulat, negara-negara saling mengirim wakilnya ke ibu kota negara lain, merundingkan hal-hal yang merupakan kepentingan bersama,mengembangkan hubungan, mencegah kesalahpahaman ataupun menghindari terjadinya sengketa. Hubungan diplomatik bersifat politik menyangkut HAM sedangkan khusus dalam bidang perdagangan, ekonomi, kebudayaan dan ilmu pengetahuan ditangani oleh para konsuler. Mereka memiliki tugas untuk mewakili negaranya dan melayani warga negara yang ada diwilayahnya.
Pengertian Perwakilan Konsuler : Perangkat, Tugas, Fungsi, Hak dan Kekebalan Perwakilan Konsuler
Namun sebelum itu saya akan membahas sedikit tentang hukum diplomatik. Pada hakekatnya hukum diplomatik merupakan bagian dari Hukum Internasional yang sebagian sumbernya sama dengan sumber Hukum Internasional. Dapat dikatakan Hukum Diplomatik merupakan ketentuan atau prinsip-prinsip Hukum Internasional yang mengatur hubungan diplomatik antar Negara yang dilakukan atas dasar pemufakatan bersama dan ketentuan atau prinsip-prinsip tersebut dituangkan didalam instrumen-instrumen hukum sebagai hasil dari kodifikasi kebiasaan internasional dan perkembangan kemajuan Hukum Internasional. Konvensi internasional atau biasa disebut Law Making Treaty 2.
Hak-Hak Perwakilan Diplomatik
Hukum Diplomatik dan Konsuler Hukum Diplomatik dan Konsuler Pengertian hukum diplomatik masih belum banyak diungkapkan, karena pada hakekatnya hukum diplomatik merupakan bagian dari Hukum Internasional yang mempunyai sebagian sumber hukum yang sama seperti konvensi-konvensi Internasional. Diplomasi merupakan suatu cara komunikasi yang dilakukan antara berbagai pihak termasuk negoisasi antara wakil-wakil yang sudah diakui. Praktik-praktik negara semacam itu sudah melembaga sejak dahulu dan kemudian menjelma sebagai aturan-aturan hukum internasional. Dari pengertian sebagaimana tersebut diatas dapat ditarik kesimpulan adanya beberapa faktor yang penting yaitu hubungan antara bangsa untuk merintis kerjasama dan persahabatan, hubungan tersebut dilakukan melalui pertukaran misi diplomatik termasuk para pejabatnya. Dengan demikian, pengertian hukum diplomatik pada hakikatnya merupakan ketentuan atau prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional yang mengatur hubungan diplomatik antar negara yang dilakukan atas dasar permufakatan bersama dan ketentuan atau prinsip-prinsip tersebut dituangkan didalam instrumen-instrumen hukum sebagai hasil dari kodifikasi hukum kebiasaan internasional dan pengembangan kemajuan hukum internasional.