Figure 1: High-Level G. DBA is used to help optimize performance. The optical distribution network ONU is the fibre component of the system. It includes singe-mode optical fibers, optical fiber ribbon cables, optical filters, passive attenuators, passive beam splitters, and splices.
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IEEE GPON systems enable the service provider to provide 2. There is a growing concern that weaknesses in the efficiencies of the Ethernet protocol will create major obstacles to use Ethernet as a transport mechanism for access in the last mile.
In addition, a mechanism for network Operations, Administration and Maintenance OAM is included to facilitate network operation and troubleshooting. The following diagram depicts the benefits in terms of distance and split ratio that service providers gain by using Class C optics. Maximum Distance vs. This translates into direct cost savings, as less fiber and OLT needs to be deployed. In the downstream direction it allows 1. Even with the evolving dataapplication, there is no need for 1.
This would not have been an issue if the c ost of the high rate had been negligible. But, unfortunately this is not the case. The need to support 1. Revenue bits are derived from the networks overall bandwidth, minus the overhead of the protocol used to transport traffic over the network. When comparing EPON vs. GPON systems supporting similar bit rates of 1. Regardless of the protocol used, these components will have a similar cost. As shown, the efficiency of the Ethernet systems is poor in comparison to GPON, and yields much fewer revenue bits.
EPON systems are characterized by relatively large overheads which causes low efficiency and consequently lower number of revenue bits vs. GPON solutions. In order to overcome these voice transport deficiencies, various schemes are being implemented but they are rather complex QoS mechanisms.
These mechanisms, though well defined in Ethernet standards, are still considered by most incumbent carriers as immature technologies which have yet to be proven to meet the toll-grade quality and reliability required from carrier-class equipment. This will add additional costs to the EPON solution.
The question is not whether Ethernet services will be provided, but how? This install base should be considered as a cash cow, in terms of revenues and profits, for carriers today.
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This dramatic overhaul of standards-making by streamlining approval procedures was implemented in and is estimated to have cut the time involved in this critical aspect of the standardization process by 80 to 90 per cent. This means that an average standard which took around four years to approve and publish until the mid nineties, and two years until , can now be approved in an average of two months, or as little as five weeks. Besides streamlining the underlying procedures involved in the approval process, an important contributory factor to the use of AAP is electronic document handling. Once the approval process has begun the rest of the process can be completed electronically, in the vast majority of cases, with no further physical meetings.