It was a father of Otojiro Komai and a gradfather of Seibei Komai who in originated a form of damascene or Japaneze Zogan used to ornament and decorate swords, guns, daggers and various types of sword furniture. With the major changes brought about by the Meiji restoration beginning of and a Haitorei Edict March , the Japanese were no longer allowed to wear swords, so the Komai family, like many others, had to find another form of livelihood. They applied their damascene craft inlaid work of gold and silver on iron ware to creating objects in Western and traditional Japanese styles producing vases, purses, cigar, cigarette and card cases, jewelry boxes, coat buttons, combs, buckles, incense burners, hanging plates, lockets, brooches, charms, spoons, bracelets, cabinets and others. Around Komai Otojiro started selling damascened ironwares in Kobe, a centre of foreign trade, and within a few years his chargers, plaques, cabinets, model pagodas, and vases were in such demand that he was prosperous enough to buy a large house.
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After completing his undergraduate degree in Japan, he began his graduate studies in the United States at the University of Michigan, where he earned a Ph. D in linguistics in Thomas H.
Rohlich was born in Pennsylvania in He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in , and re- ceived his Ph. D from Wisconsin in in Japanese Literature. Murphy Rohlich St sie PREFACE This book is for students whose studies include the reading and under- standing of texts written in Japanese that makes use of historical spelling Conventions and classical grammatical patterns.
This represents a good Portion of the texts written prior to the beginning of the twentieth century, and many written since then. This book does not, however, purport to cover all styles of premodern Japanese, or for that matter, any single style in its entirety. We do feel that it can be used as the basic textbook for a beginning course in classical Japanese and at the same time serve as a reference for advanced students and readers.
This frequently happens before the students has a solid grasp of the grammar and nuances of the classical language. Since students who study classical Japanese generally understand modern Japanese, they soon begin to make use of modem reference texts with their copious notes and modem translations. Students quickly become adept at manipulating the secondary sources without ever really acquiring reading skills in the original. This method of learning classical Japanese has obvious drawbacks, one of which is that students will find it impossible to work with texts for which there is no modern annotation or translation.
In addition, they will be unable to bring their own critical understanding and judgement to pass on points where Japanese scholars disagree. Authentic material has a role to play in learning modern Japanese, but a responsible teacher would not use it without a textbook that introduces and explains the grammar and vocabulary on which the authentic material is based. Just as a well organized textbook serves as an indispensable tool in mastering modern Japanese, we hope that this textbook will serve asa training manual and guide for students of classical Japanese.
As a result, the authentic examples are generally very short. Most of the examples in the exercises are made-up sentences, many of which include vocabulary items familiar to modem readers but clearly not present in authentic classical texts. Our emphasis is on learning the grammatical structure, and we think they can be done efficiently by using vocabulary items with which the student is familiar, evenif they are anachronistic.
Most students who use this text will be satisfied with passive reading skills in the classical language, another reason we think it is unreasonable to limit the examples to authentic materials.
We recognize that original texts inevitably contain sentences that are much longer and far more complex than our examples, but we remind our readers that this is an introductory textbook, with emphasis on the basic grammar. While it may appear to be a simplification to some, we think it is a necessary first step to thorough understanding of the more complex texts that are to follow.
We feel that initially the most troublesome difference between classical and modem Japanese is in the morphological characteristics of inflecting words. For this reason, the major emphasis in this text is placed on mastery of verbs, adjectives, and inflecting suffixes.
Once the student has mastered this aspect of the grammar, the problems faced in reading classical texts will be lessened considerably. We assume that students who use this textbook will have asolid grasp of modern Japanese. For this reason, aspects of the classical grammar that are similar to modern Japanese are not fully explained.
Such omissions may be unacceptable in linguistic descriptions of the language, but appropriate, we feel, in a textbook such as this. Students should pay particular attention to classical vocabulary items that appear identical in form to modern words, but are in fact quite different in meaning. Since this sort of difference presents particular difficulties for the student, we have attempted to introduce many of these in Notes. In addition, we have introduced a number of lexical items that are particularly important in texts of the Heian period.
Introduction of Heian vocabulary items is not, however, the main purpose of this text, and we recognize that our definitions in many cases only scratch the surface of the many nuances these words con- tain. Students who wish a more detailed definition should avail themselves of one of the many excellent dictionaries of classical Japanese. Students will eventually find that a good classical dictionary is an indispensable tool of re- search, but initially it is important that the student concentrate on the grammar of the language, not acquire skills in using dictionaries.
If students find they are spending too much time consulting dictionaries, we recommend that the teacher prepare vocabulary list or glossaries. Students must have a solid understanding of modern Japanese to use this text effectively.
Since the speed and intensity of Japanese language courses differ considerably from school to school, it is difficult to make a general statement about the length of training needed in modern Japanese before beginning classical Japanese. As a rule of thumb, we feel that three years of. Students are assigned to read a predetermined section, for instance, a chapter, and prepare the exercises, some in writing, some orally. The class time is devoted to answer- ing questions students may have on the grammatical explanations and reviewing the homework assignments by recitation of selected problems.
It is difficult to complete the entire text in a semester of approximately 45 hours class 15 weeks x 3 hours per week if all of the exercises are done in their entirety. For this reason teachers may find it most efficient to concentrate in class on only the more difficult of the sentences in each exercise, and just spot check the others. Upon completion of this text students should be ready to begin reading original texts.
Our ideal situation has been to complete the classical grammar course in the fall term, and continue with a directed readings course in classical literature in the spring. We would like to acknowledge the generous support of our home institu- tions during our work on this project, Nanzan University for a Nanzan Research Grant to Akira Komai and an invitation to Thomas Rohlich to serve as a Visiting Professor, and the University of Iowa for sabbatical leave to Rohlich.
We are very grateful for the research support provided by both institutions. Parts of Speech [iia] 2. Note 1. The particle [td] after Izenkei and Mizenkei Note 2. The inflecting suffix [Sibysi] [tJ Note 3. The inflecting suffix Wawel ] [FJ Note 4. The omission of particles BH [79 Note 7. The inflecting suffix Bwyd [ ] and [va] Note Vocabulary 4. Free words are independent units that may combine together to make a sentence, for instance, verbs, nouns, and adjectives; bound forms, such as inflecting suffixet-and particlet, are always attached to a free word or another bound form and are not used by themselves.
In the following modern Japanese sentence, free words are underlined, afid bound words are marked with shading. Each of these two major groups is further divided into sffialler groups as indicated in the following chart.
Words Without inflection [j5F3O ] 1. Substantives  a. Non-substantives [FRE] a. Non-inflecting Bound Words: Particles [B31] a. Case Particles [ ] [1 object marker b. Emphatic Particles  ] [.
It is also one of only two rules along with the geminate rule that create ambiguity for the reader excluding the exceptions listed above for the H-row rule. Gemination can occur in Japanese for a variety of reasons. However, in Sino-Japanese words, geminate consonants are produced by different, more regular processes, and the historical usage for these words reflects historical pronunciations. While this usage does reflect a historical pronunciation, it, like the Y-row rule, produces ambiguity. Furthermore, since these vowels are elided in some compounds but not others, this usage obscures the difference in a way that is essentially impossible to predict. While there are a few other processes that can cause geminates in Sino-Japanese words, they all apply to N- and M-row kana, and are not written differently in historical and modern kana.
An introduction to Classical Japanese (Komai).pdf
Dukazahn Skip to content Skip to search. An Introduction to Japanese Documents. An Introduction to Classical Fascia? These 4 locations in All: The University of Melbourne. An introduction to Classical Japanese Komai. Lists What are lists?