Specifically, I argue that to hold someone responsible is to adopt an attitude towards him rather to have a belief about him or about the conditions under which he acts. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Selected pages Title Page. Books by Christine M. Taylor Bollman rated it really liked it Oct 24, Aug 07, Peter rated it it was amazing. Lara Denis — — Philosophy in Review 17 kingddom No keywords specified fix it.
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If we remove all purposes — all material — from the will, what is left is the formal principle of the will. The formal principle of duty is just that it is duty — that it is the law. The essential character of the law is universality. Whenever you propose to perform and action whose efficacy depends on its exceptional character, you get a contradiction of this kind. It is only because we are imperfectly rational, and subject to the importunities of desire, that morality appears to us as constraint — as duty.
Since reasons are derived from principles, the will must have a principle. A free will must therefore have its own law or principle, which it gives to itself.
But notice that this just what the Formula of Universal Law says…The moral law simply describes the position of a free will. If you will morally, you really are co-legislator of the Kingdom of Ends. This is the motiviating idea of morality. The moral law commits us to the realization of the good things that rational beings place value on.
A world in which good people are miserable is morally defective. But if we are able to act exactly as we would if we were free, under the influence of the idea of freedom, then we are free…By acting morally, we can make ourselves free.
Yet it is his view that one who does adopt an end will normally come to have the feelings that are natural to a person who has this end…we should still come ot have them eventually. Although only the outward practices can be required of us, Kants makes it clear in many passages that he believes that in the state of realized virtue these feelings will be present.
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Christine M. Korsgaard