Lophodermium arundinaceum Lophodermium abietis Rostr. Native; 15 records since 15 July ; often common and sometimes very abundant; probably widespread throughout Ukraine, perhaps occurring almost wherever Picea spp. June, July. Khmelnytskyi, Zakarpatska. Inhabits living needles of Picea abies as a symptomless endophyte; fruits on pale areas of dead needles, often at first still attached to the tree, later fallen in the litter, much less frequently still attached to thinnings or other trash; always fruiting within 12 months of the death of the needle. This species is frequently referred to in the literature as Lophodermium piceae , the type specimen of which is, unfortunately, of a different fungus on needles of Abies.

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Paul, MN. Cordell C. Forest Nursery Pests. Hosts Lophodermium needle cast, caused by pathogenic species of Lophodermium, occurs on numerous conifers. Other species of Lophodermium are saprophytes and occur only on dead needles. Some of the more common species of Lophodermium, along with their hosts and pathogenic relationship, are shown in table Lophodermium seditiosum is the species most commonly associated with severe damage in nurseries.

Nursery damage by other Lophodermium spp. Distribution Lophodermium species are widely distributed; most can be found wherever their hosts are present. Damage Lophodermium needle cast seldom kills seedlings in the nursery but may cause extensive needle loss. If outplanted, however, infected seedlings may perform poorly and could serve as focal points for infection in the plantation. For these reasons, infected seedlings should be culled.

Diagnosis In the winter and spring, look for yellow and reddish-brown spots on the needles, some of which may have yellow margins fig. Eventually, the entire needle will turn yellow, then reddish brown. Severely affected seedlings appear scorched fig. Figure Bed in foreground was protected by fungicide. Fruiting bodies occur on dead portions of infected needles or on fallen needles. Look for small, gray or black, football-shaped structures visible to the naked eye figs.

When mature, these protrude slightly, and the epidermis ruptures to form a slit. Spores are hyaline, septate, and wormlike in shape; size varies according to species. Saprophytic species fruiting on dead needles, such as L. Biology Spores are produced on infected trees in the vicinity of the nursery or on infected nursery stock. Infected transplant seedlings and pine needles used as mulch may also be sources of inoculum.

Some species of Lophodermium fruit on cone scales and can be introduced into nurseries on cone fragments mixed with seeds. The period in which spores are produced varies with species and climatic conditions but may occur throughout the year.

Infection by L. Life cycles of other Lophodermium spp. Many species of Lophodermium are only weakly pathogenic and produce symptoms only on older, senescent needles. Control Prevention - Do not bring in infected transplants from other nurseries. Do not plant seedlings next to windbreaks of conifers susceptible to Lophodermium needle cast; windbreaks may be reservoirs of inoculum.

Clean seedlots thoroughly to minimize the trash sown with the seed. Do not use pine needle mulch. Cultural - Irrigate in the morning so that the seedlings will have time to dry in the afternoon; prolonged moisture is conducive to infection.

Chemical - Two fungicides-chlorothalonil and maneb-are registered for control of Lophodermium needle cast. A surfactant is needed for maneb. During rain, do not apply fungicide as it tends to wash off. Spray applications are best during periods of low air movement- during the still, early morning hours, for example-because these periods allow more uniform coverage.

Timing of fungicide applications may vary with geographic location and species of Lophodermium. In the Lake States and the Northeast, apply four sprays August 1, August 15, September 1, and September 15 just before and during the period when spores are released.

Where infection is severe and prolonged rainy weather is expected, spraying again on October 1 may be necessary.

In the Pacific Northwest, where mild, moist conditions are expected most of the year, experience has shown that from 9 to 12 sprays are most effective. Apply year-round at approximately 1-month intervals except when beds are covered by snow. Table - Species of Lophodermium, their conifer hosts, and pathogenic relationship. Selected References Minter, D. Lophodermium on pines. Mycological Papers. Minter, D. Ecology and biology of three Lophodermium turn species on secondary needles of Pinus sylvestris.

European Journal of Forest Pathology. Four species of Lophodermium on Pinus sylvestris. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. Nicholls, Thomas H. How to identify Lophodermium and brown spot diseases on pine. Paul, MN: U. Thomas H. Darroll D. Control of Lophodermium needle-cast in forest nurseries and Christmas tree plantations.

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